## Probability

Probability questions are a favourite in the non-calculator papers, particularly towards the end of the paper. They usually involve two random events and the question asks you to work out the probability of a certain outcome. And, of course, you must pay particular attention to the language in the question as to what this ‘certain…

#### Long multiplication

Electronic calculators are really amazing, BUT they come at a cost – students can simply forget how to do the most basic things in maths – like long multiplication. The non-calculator GCSE exam was introduced to remedy this situation, and in recent years there have been several questions on non-calculator papers that test this basic…

#### Irrational numbers

Although most people think of mathematics as some sort of ‘exact’ science – and who can blame them, because right from the start, they have been taught and have learnt that answers are either ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ -0 there are many ways in which mathematicians struggle with the idea of ‘exactness’. Take, as an example,…

#### How to pass your GCSE Maths exam

Five things we’ve learned about successfully studying to pass GCSE Maths I’ve been teaching Maths and Science for many decades. Since 2001, hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world have visited our site and have gone on to get good GCSE or International GCSE grades. So we thought it would be a…

#### The new periodic table

The Periodic Table has changed! Below are copies of the new and old versions to compare. The new version has two main changes (only one of which you need to remember at IGCSE and GCSE level), they are: 1. The atomic masses of the elements are now NOT nice whole numbers. The atomic masses are…

#### Speed-time graphs

The confusing thing is that SPEED-Time graphs often ‘look’ the same as DISTANCE-Time graphs. But they are very different and the information you can read from them is also very different. Let’s start with the basics. The axes look like this … Always pay careful attention to the UNITS! Time – the units here could…

#### Distance-time graphs

Do you know the difference between a ‘Distance-Time’ graph and a ‘Speed-Time’ graph? Do you know what different information you can get from each types of graph? Do you know what the ‘gradient’ of the straight, sloping lines mean in each type of graph? Let’s see … Let’s suppose you cycle from your house to…